Localisation and Cultural Aspects – Does it matter for Investors at the Balkans

The Considerations in International Marketing, Globalisation and Standardisation reshape when Local Cultural Aspects are in Question

While multinational companies strive to maximise their opportunities for product standardisation, homogenisation, similarity and integration of marketing, many realise that the way to differentiate and to reach most consumers is to localise products and target each market individually. They recognise that culture is a major factor in how consumers’ taste and lifestyle, and thus needs and desires change and that this change affects their organisations’ market opportunities. However dealing with the various cultural dynamics, e.g. different cultural assumptions, different mindsets, behaviours and so on, can be quite challenging for a company in pursuit of standardisation, and possibly even worse for companies pursuing localisation.

This essay assess the different cultural dynamics that might affect a company’s global marketing, by paying attention to different marketing processes. Examples support this case study and might answer some questions.

Introduction

This essay will discuss some examples of  international marketing efforts and the outcome of these efforts in terms of how successful the companies took into consideration probable culture impact when doing business across borders outside of their home country. Globalisation in all its aspects, for example the standardisation of products and marketing them globally, might give the impression that it is not so particularly important to localise products and adapt products based on national cultural differences. Some multinational companies show that a product can be sold to many markets (internationally) almost without any modification of the product features or formulae, for example Coca Cola, McDonalds and BMW are doing well as global organisations selling their products with ease across many cultural boundaries (countries)(dePalma 2002). Other companies, such as Mitsubishi, however, can only sell their products successful into the targeted market when the product is localised. Companies have to exercise a very precise and proper international marketing process, starting with a very thorough market analyses and researching every detail of the national culture (Raaij 1997) and the market environment in order not to missing the target market’s requirements or pay for expensive mistakes. I will use the example of Techem to discuss the consequences of what happens when a company does not execute the diligent exercise of market analyses and consequently pays a very high price by being unable to position a brand in the targeted market.

I will show that for a multinational company to have a proper international marketing process it must inevitably develop an international division dedicated to maintaining and exercising a global mindset and putting into place the right tools (market analyses, test marketing, brand positioning) able to determine whether  the target market will accept a standardised product or only a localised product.

Literature on globalisation, culture and standardisation

Theodore Levitt claims in his provocative article “The Globalization of Market” (1983)  that companies that do not standardise their products and market them globally, because the different countries and markets are becoming more and more alike, will not survive in world competition. Levitt calls for the products become “homogenized” and to be sold globally in spite of cultural differences between countries. The price, he says, will be the major focus in world competition because people like money and manufacturing efficiency, distribution and marketing management have simultaneously to excel if there are to have any success in the globalised markets. As per Levitt companies not doing so will not survive and vanish because the future customer will prefer globally standardised products. Furthermore “the multinational corporation operates in a number of countries” is not enough anymore and “the global corporation with resolute constancy – at low relative cost – [must act] as if the entire world… were a single entity” (Levitt 1983).

After 20 years Tedlow and Rawi (2003) explain why Levitt’s’ article still has an impact and importance when international marketing, globalisation and standardisation or localisation of a product for a targeted market has to be analysed. It is because Levitt was right in foreseeing globalisation at a time before the internet and common use of the fax machine.

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The research article from Lee et al (2011) “An analysis of cultural impact on international business … in a foreign market entry mode” shows the preference of multinational companies for establishing an wholly owned legal entity or subsidiary to operate independently and secure their foreign direct investment. By doing so these companies ignore the fact that “different cultures have different levels of trustworthiness” (Larson 1991 in Lee et al 2011) and teaming up with a local joint venture is often required to exhibit trust towards the local people and their customs. The case study of Techem (see below) demonstrates the consequences when this cultural dynamic is ignored in a low individualism society (Hofstede 1980).

 “Cultivating a global mindset” (Gupta and Govindarajan 2002) recommends that almost every large or medium sized company has the need to develop a concept for a global mindset. They might be right when they claim that every section of a company has to consider how they plan to operate in a dynamic world that is becoming increasingly global. In their view the global mindset consists of how a company manages the demographic makeup to accumulate cultural diversity and knowledge favouring entry into foreign markets, or how the training for headquarters and expatriate staff is tailored to maintain a mindset of curiosity and eagerness to explore, bias free, other ideas triggered from a different cultural view. In addition, the senior management “of all multinational companies must expand the cognitive map of the organization by creating geographic and cultural diversity…” (Gupta and Govindarajan 2002). Interestingly this is happening in reality when considering the example of Anshumuan Jain, born in Rajasthan, India, an Indian business executive, who took over the CEO position of Deutsche Bank on June 2012. He speaks little German so this is a remarkable showing that the lack of speaking the local language does not rule out being a “boss”. Thus, the finance industry finds it essential to have a global mind set.

Techem and the United Arab Emirates

The following example shows in more detail the crucial impact of cultural dynamics on the marketing process. “Techem” (http://www.techem.com) and “ista” (http://www.ista.com/en/home/index.html) are two European companies based in Germany which offer invoicing and cost allocation services for efficient energy use (saving energy, consumption monitoring, heating, cooling, electricity, gas, etc.). Both organisations render much the same service products and metering devices to their customers. For example, the landlord of an apartment building has to issue an invoice stating ancillary and energy consumption cost for all the tenants mandatory by law in European countries. Every apartment has its own metering devices for the energy consumed. For the commonly used areas such as the lobby a cost allocation scheme is applied which it is mandatory by law to explain in the tenancy contract (e.g. by square meter of the rented apartment). The above organisations are a 3rd party service towards the landlord and the tenants and the cost for this service is adequately distributed between the tenants and the landlord. Techem and ista were not international organisations before the year 2007 (Lutz 2007) when both decided to launch a legal entity in the Middle East  (in the Emirate of Dubai the United Arab Emirates). This branch office was simultaneously a milestone towards the internationalisation  of both Techems and istas. Both organisations were major rivals since their establishment and at the time of expansion both had mainly European market experience (Techem 1952, ista 1957). Interestingly, both also made the same mistakes simultaneously.

For practical reasons, from here on, only Techem will be considered because there is de facto no difference in the targeted market operations of  both companies.

The entry mode chosen for the free trade zone is most inefficient due to the fact that only services can be invoiced (hardware involves a direct shipment from the headquarters), and it is impossible to win government contracts (Lee et al 2011). The expensive polycentric organisational framework in which the headquarters set the agenda for the sales target, return of investment, etc., and the culture of the subsidiary country leads the implementation. The sequence of steps used by the company had crucial flaws from the beginning due to the fact that only after setting up the office in Dubai Techem started developing an international division. Therefore there was no appropriate existing international marketing plan in place at the required time. When looking at a few marketing processes (Dibb et al 2006, Kotler and Keller 2013) the picture will become clearer. For example, the market analysis (if this even happened) ignored major cultural and market environment facts about the Arabic region and of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in particular.

aristi aristi4you analyse your market to mitigate risks for FDI
analyse the target market to mitigate risks for FDI

 The market environment constituting the base for Techem’s business model in Europe simply does not exist in the UAE. It is not mandatory for the landlord to issue an invoice for a  consumption based cost allocation for cooling (in Europe heating) to the tenants, nor is he obliged by the municipality. The existing routine and widely accepted practice for decades is that the cost for cooling and other ancillary positions are included in the rent except for electricity and tap water consumption for which every tenant has a metering device and pays directly to the water and electricity authorities of the respective Emirate for example Dubai or Abu Dhabi. The result is very little sales from few projects only.

The culture of the UAE’s indigenous people

is based on following the instructions of the sheik. The sheik owns the land and will never be questioned or embarrassed in public, he is known for giving the right advice and for what is best for the people. When there is a subject without a particular direction, because it is new to the society and therefore not existent in the deeply rooted cultural behaviour, it is introduced discreetly to the sheik and later discussed at the federal national committee. Mostly, a new concept is conveyed in such a way that it later looks as though it was the sheik’s idea anyway (Anheier et al 2007).

 A recent and real world example of how Western and Arabic values and culture clash is an article published in the Abu Dhabi newspaper “The National”: “Right and wrong or honor and shame in Middle East society?” (Weir 2013).

Basically the article is about what is considered to be false in Western culture but is accurate for the Arabic world. An Arabic leader always does the best towards his own people. It is all about culture and how wrong and right defined differently is in the Western World to the Middle East. To narrow it down, the Western World has a culture of guilt and innocence while the Arabic world has one based on losing face and shame and honour. Thus, business models cannot not simply copy from the West and paste into another region because of the culture and the existing routines. Techem did so and when the actual facts were discovered is forced to remain in waiting until a ruler changes the law in Techems’ favour. It can a take a long time until the legislation sees a need to implement new rules or laws, but when this is in contradiction to the local practice, here the property market and the landlord outside the freehold zones, it might never happen.

Historically, the sheik does not tell the landlords how to manage their investment into property. They generate accommodation for the people of the UAE and the target of maximising profit is legitimate. The UAE culture is much the same as Arabic culture everywhere and being based on the shame and honour and ones’ actions reflects wither well or badly toward the tribe. Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimension for the Middle East and in particular for the UAE (Hofstede 2010 and http://geert-hofstede.com/arab-emirates.html, April 2014) is defined  with a high power distance of 90 “… which means that people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount and over-rides most other societal rules and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link)…”. The low individualism dimension score of 25 “… is considered a collectivistic society”, furthermore a masculinity dimension score of (50) shows a equal distribution with no tendency to masculine or feminine. An uncertainty score of 80 on this dimension shows a high tendency for avoiding uncertainty. “Countries exhibiting high uncertainty avoidance maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional need for rules … innovation may be resisted, security is an important element in individual motivation” (Hofstede April 2014 http://geert-hofstede.com/arab-emirates.html).

When one considers the culture of the UAE it is difficult to understand Techems’ entry into this market as it applied a business model in a region where the market environment does not offer the base to make this operation work. In addition, it is a fact that environmental subjects (Techem’s agenda is to save energy when cooling the house or apartment) were only introduced recently into the UAE’s society. Techem entered this market too early and is now unable to correct its mistake. To retreat and abandon the market now will inhibit a return in the future as this constitutes loosing face and will not be tolerated. Techems’ ultimate decision to stay and managing the head count according the available resources to save costs and wait until the law and environmental awareness has changed to their favor although when this will happen remains unknown (Telephone interview April 2014, with the Technical Manger,  Mr Hussam Hatamleh, employed with Techem since the launch of the Dubai office).

McDonald’s: A scary example of globalisation?

Obliviously McDonald’s did their homework concerning their international marketing process. There is often good and bad involved when something is done at a large scale. When a multinational company like McDonald’s, with revenues exceeding the gross domestic product of some small countries in the undeveloped world and in the developed world even Austria and Denmark (MN7529 2011), brings fast food to the “global village” (Levitt 1983, dePalma 2002) with the benefit of direct foreign investment (DFI) and an increase in employment and prosperity, particular in countries having a troubled economy, the government concerned will most likely not say no to such a commitment. It might cost a national economy, at the end of the day, more money to fight the consequences of obesity, diabetes and heart disease near epidemic levels due to the fact that frequently eating fast food might be unhealthy and lead to diseases in the long run (Morgan Spurlock, Super Size Me 2004). In 2002 two girls filed a lawsuit against McDonald’s in New York based on obesity caused through fast food (Lawrence 2004). The lawsuit was dismissed but not without having consequences for McDonald’s who changed their marketing communication to avoid and increasingly bad reputation. They now send messages to emphasise their environmental commitment (use of recycled material) and have added some healthy choices such as veggie burger and salad with lean dressing, etc., to their menu. Additional McDonald’s fraternises in communication and adding pseudo localised products for example the “Mc Arabia”.

aristi aristi4you Standarisation - Does it always work?
globalisation, culture, standardisation – Does it always match-up?

However McDonald’s adjusted communication effort does not pay off completely in major markets for example China the sales are declining ( 22 April 2014, http://www.finanzen.net/aktien/McDonalds-Aktie).

BMW does not need to localise their products

There are multinational corporations, for example BMW, which have had successful business for many years, recently with record sales, showing that standardisation applied globally is working. BMW offers the same product (with almost no major modification) in every country with the existing purchasing power for premium passenger cars (Raaij 1997). “In 2013, BMW delivered 1.96 million cars with BMW, Mini and Rolls-Royce registering record deliveries, driven by a 19.7 percent rise in mainland China and an 8.1 percent rise in the U.S., the company said.” (http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/13/us-bmw-automotive-results-idUSBREA2C0MC20140313). The fact that BMW sells in countries with very different cultures, for example in the USA and China (Cheung 2010), and the growth in numbers of vehicles sold is extraordinary is very interesting. Standardisation is applied in many different markets with the same product and even with the same communication, the motto “Freude am Fahren” in German is working internationally. The marketing processes, market analyses and brand positioning were executed properly in many ways. For example in most Asian locations only the bigger passenger cars were promoted as analyses showed that end users able to afford a BMW can afford a driver and the smaller 3-series do not provide the required comfortable space in the rear seats.

But not every car manufacturer is doing his homework as well as BMW, and the automotive industry is full of examples where the necessary localisation of the product name or the communication (Raaij 1997) were not executed successfully. Mitsubishi made a mistake when introducing their SUV car with the name “Pajero”, in Spanish it means “Wanker”, needless to say that the “Pajero” was not sold successfully in South America.

The example of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is a good example for showing that market analyses can prevent invest in certain marketing channels due to the cultural and the economic environment influencing consumer behaviour towards some products. Medical lenses (spectacles) manufacturers such as Essilor (French), Hoya (Japanese), Rodenstock and Zeiss (German) do not have a direct foreign investment in building a local marketing channel (distributor and/or local manufacturing) for their premium products, e.g. high index plastic lens (thinner and lighter), multi coating surface(better transparency through anti reflexion), tinted (cosmetics and glare reducing) simply because there are not enough customers for such products in this country. The reasons are manifold, but two are predominant. The first is that Sri Lanka is mainly an agricultural product exporter and most people generate their income through this industry. There is little motivation to spend extra money for anything exceeding basic needs. Historically, Sri Lankan culture and attitudes are driven by a deep routed social system based on land and children, and the concept has not changed recently. Thus all income generated will go into land and children (Soares et al 2007). Secondly, the health care system of Sri Lanka provides basic medical health care to avoid epidemic situation and keep the population fit for work. These basic health care services are free of cost for Sri Lankan nationals due to the fact that the Sri Lankan attitude is highly resistant to paying for anything related to health care or improving comfort if this is not necessary to avoid pain or worse. Everything outside of this scope is at the expense of the Sri Lankan national, e.g. a spectacles frame and the medical lenses to correct vision or increase comfort. This means that if the government does not pay then it does not seem be important. The Sri Lankan government is making substantial efforts  to attract direct foreign investment (WTO 4 and 5 November 2010 TRADE POLICY REVIEW: SRI LANKA  WT/TPR/S/237) but the report shows very little activity.

discussing localisation aristi aristi4you
discussing localisation

The medical lenses (basic type) arrive in Sri Lanka through few importers and reach so some retailers when ordered and paid for in advance only. The marketing strategy for manufacturers of these products will target mainly markets with enough consumers with excess income, for example those who can afford a smart phone, located in North America, Europe and Japan.

Conclusion

Root cause for an international marketing success and failure

Markets consist of people and every location has its history and culture formed by the  society values, the political and religious environment, the economy and wealth distribution and even the weather has its say when cultural dynamics comes into play determining the marketing process for the targeted market on a global or international scale (Raaij 1997).

Of course there is a limitation to predicting the market behaviour completely but the agenda should be to mitigate the risks and mistakes when products are tailored for a global market or localised for any international market. Both approaches demand thorough market research and analyses, and continuous monitoring for changes in the targeted market is a diligent exercise every company has to undertake. When one avoids this the likelihood of expensive mistakes is pre-programmed.

Market situations are not static

The situation of any market is not static and it could be that the economies of scale are not applicable for a certain time only; changes in the near or distant future might happen altering the situation. For example, the fashion industry in Turkey is experiencing an amazing market growth (apparel and footwear), which one would have never thought possible some time ago as for Islamic society many manufactures assumed that the people of Turkey (in particular women) would use a unified cloth type only (April 2014, http://www.euromonitor.com/apparel-in-turkey/report). Now the situation in Turkey is for many Western manufacturers of standardised apparel and footwear products very much in their favour and sales growth is very promising already.

It is also possible that a localised  product (with higher production costs due to the lack of economies of scale) might show an unexpected result and turn out to be a popular product unforeseen in other markets. This is valid, for example, for the tamagotchi toy from a Japanese manufacturer. Tamagotchi was released for the Japanese market only in 1997 and in 2003 the manufacturer created an English version to serve markets in USA and Europe (April 2014 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Tamagotchi_releases; and http://www.japantimes.co.jp/community/2013/03/02/our-lives/what-ever-appened-to-the-tamagotchi/#.U15ddleIsZ4).

The marketing process of analysing, planning, implementing the product mix and controlling the applied measures are steps of particular importance. Without this the necessary brand positioning to achieve future success and necessary return of investment is unlikely to happen. McDonald’s market environment and marketing communication had to be adjusted continuously to avoid loss of revenue, however, McDonald’s has had a decrease in revenues in recent years in many international markets, for example China just to name one.

Marketing processes if domestic, international or global have always to consider cultural dynamics. The importance of diligent marketing planning has no exceptions and the importance for global consideration cannot be ignored. That means there is a huge demand for updated research toward marketing in relation to cultural impacts. And if one shares the beliefs of Philip Kotler, the marketing industry  will create many jobs in the future (Philip Kotler 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sR-qL7QdVZQ,  April 2014).

What similarities do you see for Balkans or Serbia as a stand alone discussion?

What is your opinion? Do you consider the Balkans as such a diverse region, that every country must be discussed separately regarding cultural traits and requirements? What different approaches for investors in Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia or Montenegro and North Macedonia must be considered? Discuss with us!

This essay is a work by Elmar from 2014.

aristi aristi4you are we fit to initiate a new entry
are we fit to initiate a new entry?

References

BMW http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/13/us-bmw-automotive-results-idUSBREA2C0MC20140313

Fashion in Turkey (April 2014) http://www.euromonitor.com/apparel-in-turkey/report

Hofstede, Geert, April 2014, http://geert-hofstede.com/arab-emirates.html
ista http://www.ista.com/en/home/index.html (April 2014)
Kotler, Philip (2012) ‘Philip Kottler: Marketing’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sR-qL7QdVZQ (April 2014)
Lutz, Stefan (2007) ‘Techem opens office in Dubai’ http://www.pressrelations.de/new/standard/dereferrer.cfm?r=279162

McDonald’s http://www.finanzen.net/aktien/McDonalds-Aktie (22nd April 2014)
Techem http://www.techem.com (April 2004)

Tamagotchi (April 2014) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Tamagotchi_releases; and http://www.japantimes.co.jp/community/2013/03/02/our-lives/what-ever-appened-to-the-tamagotchi/#.U15ddleIsZ4
Weir, Tommy (July 14, 2013) The newspaper TheNational, Abu Dhabi http://www.thenational.ae/business/industry-insights/the-life/right-and-wrong-or-honour-and-shame-in-middle-east-society (April 2014)
WTO 4 and 5 November 2010 TRADE POLICY REVIEW: SRI LANKA WT/TPR/S/237

Kotler, Philip and Kevin Lane Keller (2009) Marketing Management London: Pearson Prentice Hall
Lawrence, Regina G. (2004) ‘Framing Obesity: The Evolution of News Discourse on a Public Health Issue” The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 9(3):56-75Lee, Cheong-A and Ho-Yeol Bang, Jong Wook Ha, Joo Young Lee, Young Hee Yun Kim (2011) ‘An analysis of cultural impact on international business performance via foreign market entry mode: case of South Korean MNCs’ Journal of Management and Marketing Research’ 7:1-8

Levitt, Theodore (1983) ‘The Globalization of Markets’ Harvard Business Review 61(3):92-102
Levitt, Theodore (1975) ‘Marketing Myopia’ Harvard Business Review 75507
MN7201/D School of Management University of Leicester (2009) Marketing, Design and Operations Cheltenham: Learning Resources
MN7303/D School of Management University of Leicester (2008) Business-to-Business Marketing and Supply Chain Management Leicester: University of Leicester
MN7529 School of Management University of Leicester (2011) International Marketing Leicester: University of Leicester
Porter, M. E. (1981) ‘The Contributions of Industrial Organization To Strategic Management’ Academy of Management Review 6(4):609-620
Porter, M. E. (1990) ‘The Competitive Advantage of Nations’ Harvard Business Review 90211:73-91
Raaij, Fred (1997) ‘Globalisation of marketing communication’ Journal of Economic Psychology 18:259-270
Soares, Ana Maria, Farhangmehr Minoo and Shoham Aviv (2007) ‘Hofstede’s dimensions of culture in international marketing studies’ Journal of Business Research 60:277-284
Spurlock, Morgan (2004) ‘Super Size Me’ Samuel Goldwyn Films: United States
Whittington, R. (2001) What is Strategy – and does it matter? Andover, Hampshire, London: Cengage Learning
Quelch, John and Rohit Deshpande (2004) The Global Market San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Anheier, Helmut and Yudhishthir Raj Isar (2007) Cultures and Tensions The cultures and globalization series 1 London: Sage

Cheung, Ming (2010) ‘The globalization and localization of persuasive marketing communication: A cross-linguistic socio-cultural analysis’ Journal of Pragmatics 42:354-376

DePalma, Donald A. (2002) Business Without Borders New York: John Wiley & Sons

Dibb, S., L. Simkin, W. M. Pride and O.C. Ferrell (2006) Marketing Concepts and Strategies Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company

Gupta, Anil K. and Vijay Govindarajan (2002) ‘Cultivating a global mindset’ Academy of Management Executive 16(1):116-126

Hofstede, Geert, Hofstede Gert Jan and Minkov Michael (2010) Cultures and Organizations Software for the Mind New York: McGraw-Hill

Internet References

BMW http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/13/us-bmw-automotive-results-idUSBREA2C0MC20140313

Fashion in Turkey (April 2014) http://www.euromonitor.com/apparel-in-turkey/report

Hofstede, Geert, April 2014, http://geert-hofstede.com/arab-emirates.html

ista http://www.ista.com/en/home/index.html (April 2014)

Kotler, Philip (2012) ‘Philip Kottler: Marketing’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sR-qL7QdVZQ (April 2014)

Lutz, Stefan (2007) ‘Techem opens office in Dubai’ http://www.pressrelations.de/new/standard/dereferrer.cfm?r=279162

McDonald’s  http://www.finanzen.net/aktien/McDonalds-Aktie (22nd April 2014)

Techem http://www.techem.com (April 2004)

Tamagotchi (April 2014) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Tamagotchi_releases; and http://www.japantimes.co.jp/community/2013/03/02/our-lives/what-ever-appened-to-the-tamagotchi/#.U15ddleIsZ4

Weir, Tommy (July 14, 2013) The newspaper TheNational, Abu Dhabi http://www.thenational.ae/business/industry-insights/the-life/right-and-wrong-or-honour-and-shame-in-middle-east-society (April 2014)

WTO 4 and 5 November 2010 TRADE POLICY REVIEW: SRI LANKA  WT/TPR/S/237

Kotler, Philip and Kevin Lane Keller (2009) Marketing Management London: Pearson Prentice Hall

Lawrence, Regina G. (2004) ‘Framing Obesity: The Evolution of News Discourse on a Public Health Issue” The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 9(3):56-75

Lee, Cheong-A and Ho-Yeol Bang, Jong Wook Ha, Joo Young Lee, Young Hee Yun Kim (2011) ‘An analysis of cultural impact on international business performance via foreign market entry mode: case of South Korean MNCs’ Journal of Management and Marketing Research’  7:1-8

Levitt, Theodore (1983) ‘The Globalization of Markets’ Harvard Business Review  61(3):92-102

Levitt, Theodore (1975) ‘Marketing Myopia’ Harvard Business Review 75507

MN7201/D School of Management University of Leicester (2009) Marketing, Design and Operations Cheltenham: Learning Resources

MN7303/D School of Management University of Leicester (2008) Business-to-Business Marketing and Supply Chain Management Leicester: University of Leicester

MN7529 School of Management University of Leicester (2011) International Marketing Leicester: University of Leicester

Porter, M. E. (1981) ‘The Contributions of Industrial Organization To Strategic Management’ Academy of Management Review 6(4):609-620

Porter, M. E. (1990) ‘The Competitive Advantage of Nations’ Harvard Business Review 90211:73-91

Raaij, Fred (1997) ‘Globalisation of marketing communication’ Journal of Economic Psychology 18:259-270

Soares, Ana Maria, Farhangmehr Minoo and Shoham Aviv (2007)  ‘Hofstede’s dimensions of culture in international marketing studies’ Journal of Business Research 60:277-284

Spurlock, Morgan (2004) ‘Super Size Me’ Samuel Goldwyn Films: United States

Whittington, R. (2001) What is Strategy – and does it matter? Andover, Hampshire, London: Cengage Learning

Quelch, John and Rohit Deshpande (2004) The Global Market San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

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